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(very much abbreviated
from The Battlefield, Algeria)
1525-1830: Ottoman rule establishes fundamental
features of Algerian state.
July 1830: French conquest of Algeria begins; it takes over
1926: Birth of popular separatist nationalism with foundation
of Etoile Nord-Africaine.
1931: Foundation of the Association of Algerian Muslim 'ulama.
1937: Messali Hadj founds the Parti du Peuple Algerien (PPA).
May 1945: Massacres of Muslims at Kherrata, Setif, Guelma and
Sai'da following abortive nationalist uprising
1954: Formation of FLN in breakaway from PPA.
1 November 1954: The FLN launches the war of national liberation.
5 July 1962: Algerian independence
19 June 1965: Algeria's first President, Ahmed Ben Bella, overthrown;
a Council of the Revolution chaired by Defence Minister Col.
Houari Boumediene assumes power.
24 February 1971: Algeria nationalises its oil and gas.
27 December 1978: Death of Boumediene.
February 1979: Chadli Bendjedid becomes President.
March-April 1980: Protests in Kabylia; birth of Berber Cultural
1980-82: Growth of Islamist movement.
1981-83: Major rapprochement with France gets underway.
December 1983: Chadli Bendjedid secures second five-year term.
1985-87: Low-level guerrilla campaign in hinterland of Algiers
waged by the Armed Islamic Movement (MIA) led by Mustapha Bouyali.
1985-86: Collapse of world oil price.
23 February 1989: Ratification of new constitution, abandoning
references to socialism and dethroning the Party of the FLN,
while recognising right to form 'associations of a political
Feb-March 1989: Formation of Islamic Salvation Front (FIS).
12 June: Municipal and regional elections
swept by FIS; FLN humiliated.
2 August: Iraq invades Kuwait.
21-30 June: Army moves against FIS-controlled
municipalities followed by arrest of FIS leaders Abassi Madam
and Ali Ben Hadj and five colleagues.
25-26 July: MIA reconstituted by veterans of Bouyali's guerrilla
26 December: FIS wins 188 of 232 seats decided on first ballot
in legislative elections.
11-16 January: Army commanders force Chadli
to resign the Presidency; in violation of 1989 constitution,
a High State Committee (HCE) is set up, chaired by previously
exiled old FLN leader Mohamed Boudiaf; second round of legislative
visas elections cancelled; FLN, FFS and FIS announce their joint
opposition to HCE.
20 January: Reconstituted MIA and other groups launch attacks
on security forces.
February-March: FIS dissolved; thousands of FIS activists interned
in concentration camps in the Sahara.
29 June: Boudiaf assassinated.
15 July: Abassi Madani and Ali Ben Hadj sentenced to twelve
years in prison.
26 September: Creation of special forces under General Mohamed
February-March: Prominent personalities targeted
in assassinations; the terror begins.
21 September: Abduction and murder of two French technicians
announces existence of the Armed Islamic Group (GIA) and onset
of its campaign against foreigners.
30 January: High Security Council appoints
Defence Minister Liamine Zeroual to position of 'President of
the State' for a transition period of three years.
February: Zeroual announces 'dialogue open to all'. Massive
elite backlash against Zeroual's initiative.
9-10 April: Agreement with IMF on rescheduling of Algerian debt.
18 July: Islamic Salvation Army (AIS) announces its existence.
Dissociates itself from GIA and stresses its allegiance to civilian
August-November: Unsuccessful attempts at negotiation between
government and FIS end in a spectacular escalation of the violence.
13 January: 'Rome platform' signed by FLN,
FIS and FFS after negotiations held under the auspices of the
Catholic Sant' Egidio community.
16 November: Presidential election. Zeroual elected with 61%
of a 75% turnout.
5 June: Legislative elections. Vote is dominated
by new party, the National Democratic Rally.
July: Wave of massacres
August-September: Hundreds of defenceless civilians slaughtered
at Raïs, Beni Messous and Benthala, on outskirts of Algiers.
28 September: AIS leadership announces ceasefire throughout
October-December: Local and national elections swept by regime-sponsored
Late December: Hundreds killed in fresh massacres in mountains
south of Relizane.
11 January: Hundreds of civilians massacred
at Sidi Hammad, south of Algiers.
15 April: Abdel Bouteflika elected president
by default after six other candidates withdraw on eve of polling
April - June: Violent confrontations between
police and demonstrators in Kabylia.
30 May Legislative elections. FLN secures
a majority (199 out of 389 seats) after a low turnout.